# Mathematics

## District

## Standards for Mathematical Practice

These standards as outlined in the Massachusetts Mathematics Curriculum Frameworks describe the deep mathematical understandings that our curriculum seeks to develop in our students as they progress through more challenging content throughout grades K-12.

- Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Model with mathematics.
- Use appropriate tools strategically.
- Attend to precision.
- Look for and make use of structure.
- Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

## High School

The goal of the Mathematics Department is to build mathematical competence in its students. This is achieved by providing course offerings that develop a deep understanding of mathematics and actively engage all students in meaningful mathematics, discussing mathematical ideas, and applying mathematics to real-world problems. The habits of problem solving, communicating, reasoning and proof, making connections, and using representations and mathematical models are emphasized in each of the courses.

## Middle School

Middle School mathematics explores multiple topics across grade levels. Student have an opportunity to refine skills and apply them in practical ways as they move from Pre-algebra to Algebra I. Students have the opportunity to take honors math class after grade 6.

### Math Pathways

#### Placement

Criteria for placement into math classes is based upon performance on the following assessments:

- Course Grade
- MCAS
- STAR Math Assessment (January)
- IOWA Algebra Aptitude Test (March)
- Fluency assessment (March)
- Teacher Rubric

## Elementary

## Elementary Math Curriculum Overview

Hopkinton’s K-5 math curriculum is aligned to the MA Curriculum Frameworks, which highlight the need for balance in elementary math instruction. Hopkinton’s elementary math curriculum is very much in line with the following excerpt from the Frameworks:

"The standards strategically develop students’ mathematical understanding and skills. When students are first introduced to a mathematical concept they explore and investigate the concept by using concrete objects, visual models, drawings, or representations to build their understanding. In the early grades they develop number sense while working with numbers in many ways. They learn a variety of strategies to solve problems and use what they have learned about patterns in numbers and the properties of numbers. This serves to develop a strong understanding of number sense, decomposing and composing numbers, the relationship between addition and subtraction, and multiplication and division.

In calculations, students are expected to use the most efficient and accurate way to solve a problem based on their understanding and knowledge of place value and properties of numbers. Students reach fluency by building understanding of mathematical concepts –this lays a strong foundation that prepares students for more advanced math work – and by building automaticity in the recall of basic computation facts, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. As students apply their mathematical knowledge and skills to solve real-world problems, they also gain an understanding of the importance of mathematics throughout their lives. To achieve mathematical understanding, students should be actively engaged in meaningful mathematics.

The content and practice standards focus on developing students in the following areas: Conceptual understanding – make sense of the math, reason about and understand math concepts and ideas Procedural fluency – know mathematical facts, compute and do the math Capacity – solve a wide range of problems in various contexts by reasoning, thinking, and applying the mathematics they have learned.”

## Curriculum Snapshots

## Pre Kindergarten

The pre-kindergarten standards presented by Massachusetts are guideposts to facilitate young children’s underlying mathematical understanding. The Massachusetts pre-kindergarten standards apply to children who are in the age group of older four- and younger five-year olds. The standards—which correspond with the learning activities in the Massachusetts Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences (2003)—can be promoted through play and exploration activities, and embedded in almost all daily activities. They should not be limited to “math time.” In this age group, foundations of mathematical understanding are formed out of children’s experiences with real objects and materials.

In preschool or pre-kindergarten, activity time should focus on two critical areas: (1) developing an understanding of whole numbers to 10, including concepts of one-to-one correspondence, counting, cardinality (the number of items in a set), and comparison; and (2) recognizing two-dimensional shapes, describing spatial relationships, and sorting and classifying objects by one or more attributes. Relatively more learning time should be devoted to developing children’s sense of number as quantity than to other mathematics topics.

Young children begin counting and quantifying numbers up to 10. They begin with oral counting and recognition of numerals and word names for numbers. Experience with counting naturally leads to quantification. Children count objects and learn that the sizes, shapes, positions, or purposes of objects do not affect the total number of objects in the group. One-to-one correspondence matches each element of one set to an element of another set, providing a foundation for the comparison of groups and the development of comparative language such as more than, less than, and equal to.

Young children explore shapes and the relationships among them. They identify the attributes of different shapes, including length, area, and weight, by using vocabulary such as long, short, tall, heavy, light, big, small, wide, narrow. They compare objects using comparative language such as longer/shorter, same length, heavier/lighter. They explore and create two- and three-dimensional shapes by using various manipulative and play materials such as Popsicle sticks, blocks, pipe cleaners, and pattern blocks. They sort, categorize, and classify objects and identify basic two-dimensional shapes using the appropriate language.

*(Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2017 Massachusetts Mathematics Curriculum Framework)*

## Kindergarten

In kindergarten, instructional time should focus on two critical areas: (1) representing, relating, and operating on whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; and (2) describing shapes and space.

1. Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.

2. Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.

*(Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2017 Massachusetts Mathematics Curriculum Framework)*

## Grade 1

In grade 1, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addition and subtraction within 20; (2) developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping in tens and ones; (3) developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units; and (4) reasoning about attributes of, and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.

1. Students develop strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers based on their prior work with small numbers. They use a variety of models, including discrete objects and length-based models (e.g., cubes connected to form lengths), to model add-to, take-from, put-together, take-apart, and compare situations to develop meaning for the operations of addition and subtraction, and to develop strategies to solve arithmetic problems with these operations. Students understand connections between counting and addition and subtraction (e.g., adding two is the same as counting on two). They use properties of addition to add whole numbers and to create and use increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties (e.g., “making tens”) to solve addition and subtraction problems within 20. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, children build their understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction.

2. Students develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to add within 100 and subtract multiples of 10. They compare whole numbers (at least to 100) to develop an understanding of and solve problems involving their relative sizes. They think of whole numbers between 10 and 100 in terms of tens and ones (especially recognizing the numbers 11 to 19 as composed of a ten and some ones). Through activities that build number sense, they understand the order of the counting numbers and their relative magnitudes.

3. Students develop an understanding of the meaning and processes of measurement, including underlying concepts such as iterating (the mental activity of building up the length of an object with equal-sized units) and the transitivity principle for indirect measurement.

4. Students compose and decompose plane or solid figures (e.g., put two triangles together to make a quadrilateral) and build understanding of part-whole relationships as well as the properties of the original and composite shapes. As they combine shapes, they recognize them from different perspectives and orientations, describe their geometric attributes, and determine how they are alike and different, to develop the background for measurement and for initial understandings of properties such as congruence and symmetry.

*(Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2017 Massachusetts Mathematics Curriculum Framework)*

## Grade 2

In grade 2, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) extending understanding of base-ten notation; (2) building fluency with addition and subtraction; (3) using standard units of measure; and (4) describing and analyzing shapes.

1. Students extend their understanding of the base-ten system. This includes ideas of counting in fives, tens, and multiples of hundreds, tens, and ones, as well as number relationships involving these units, including comparing. Students understand multi-digit numbers (up to 1,000) written in base-ten notation, recognizing that the digits in each place represent amounts of thousands, hundreds, tens, or ones (e.g., 853 is 8 hundreds + 5 tens + 3 ones).

2. Students use their understanding of addition to develop fluency with addition and subtraction within 100. They solve problems within 1,000 by applying their understanding of models for addition and subtraction, and they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute sums and differences of whole numbers in base-ten notation, using their understanding of place value and the properties of operations. They select and accurately apply methods that are appropriate for the context and the numbers involved to mentally calculate sums and differences for numbers with only tens or only hundreds.

3. Students recognize the need for standard units of measure (centimeter and inch) and they use rulers and other measurement tools with the understanding that linear measure involves an iteration of units. They recognize that the smaller the unit, the more iterations they need to cover a given length.

4. Students describe and analyze shapes by examining their sides and angles. Students investigate, describe, and reason about decomposing and combining shapes to make other shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two- and three-dimensional shapes, students develop a foundation for understanding area, volume, congruence, similarity, and symmetry in later grades.

## Grade 3

In grade 3, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies for multiplication and division within 100; (2) developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1); (3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area; and (4) describing and analyzing two-dimensional shapes.

1. Students develop an understanding of the meanings of multiplication and division of whole numbers through activities and problems involving equal-sized groups, arrays, and area models; multiplication is finding an unknown product, and division is finding an unknown factor in these situations. For equalsized group situations, division can require finding the unknown number of groups or the unknown group size. Students use properties of operations to calculate products of whole numbers, using increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties to solve multiplication and division problems involving single-digit factors. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, students learn the relationship between multiplication and division.

2. Students develop an understanding of fractions, beginning with unit fractions. Students view fractions in general as being built out of unit fractions, and they use fractions along with visual fraction models to represent parts of a whole. Students understand that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the whole. For example, 1 ∕2 of the paint in a small bucket could be less paint than 1 ∕3 of the paint in a larger bucket, but 1 ∕3 of a ribbon is longer than 1 ∕5 of the same ribbon because when the ribbon is divided into 3 equal parts, the parts are longer than when the ribbon is divided into 5 equal parts. Students are able to use fractions to represent numbers equal to, less than, and greater than one. They solve problems that involve comparing fractions by using visual fraction models and strategies based on noticing equal numerators or denominators.

3. Students recognize area as an attribute of two-dimensional regions. They measure the area of a shape by finding the total number of same-size units of area required to cover the shape without gaps or overlaps; a square with sides of unit length being the standard unit for measuring area. Students understand that rectangular arrays can be decomposed into identical rows or into identical columns. By decomposing rectangles into rectangular arrays of squares, students connect area to multiplication, and justify using multiplication to determine the area of a rectangle.

4. Students describe, analyze, and compare properties of two-dimensional shapes. They compare and classify shapes by their sides and angles, and connect these with definitions of shapes. Students also relate their fraction work to geometry by expressing the area of part of a shape as a unit fraction of the whole.

## Grade 4

In grade 4, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends; (2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; (3) and understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.

1. Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (equal-sized groups, arrays, area models), place value, and properties of operations, in particular the distributive property, as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute products of multi-digit whole numbers. Depending on the numbers and the context, they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate or mentally calculate products. They develop fluency with efficient procedures for multiplying whole numbers; understand and explain why the procedures work based on place value and properties of operations; and use them to solve problems. Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context.

2. Students develop understanding of fraction equivalence and operations with fractions. They recognize that two different fractions can be equal (e.g., 15∕9 = 5 ∕3), and they develop methods for generating and recognizing equivalent fractions. Students extend previous understandings about how fractions are built from unit fractions, composing fractions from unit fractions, decomposing fractions into unit fractions, and using the meaning of fractions and the meaning of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

3. Students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two-dimensional shapes, students deepen their understanding of properties of twodimensional objects and the use of them to solve problems involving symmetry.

## Grade 5

In grade 5, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions); (2) extending division to 2-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations; and (3) developing understanding of measurement systems and determining volumes to solve problems; and (4) solving problems using the coordinate plane

1. Students apply their understanding of fractions and fraction models to represent the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators as equivalent calculations with like denominators. They develop fluency in calculating sums and differences of fractions, and make reasonable estimates of them. Students also use the meaning of fractions, of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions make sense. (Note: this is limited to the case of dividing unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.)

2. Students develop understanding of why division procedures work based on the meaning of base-ten numerals and properties of operations. They finalize fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and division. They apply their understandings of models for decimals, decimal notation, and properties of operations to add and subtract decimals to hundredths. They develop fluency in these computations and make reasonable estimates of their results. Students use the relationship between decimals and fractions, as well as the relationship between finite decimals and whole numbers (i.e., a finite decimal multiplied by an appropriate power of 10 is a whole number), to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing finite decimals make sense. They compute products and quotients of decimals to hundredths efficiently and accurately.

3. Students convert among different-sized measurement units within a given measurement system allowing for efficient and accurate problem solving with multi-step real-world problems as they progress in their understanding of scientific concepts and calculations. Students recognize volume as an attribute of three-dimensional space. They understand that volume can be measured by finding the total number of same-size units of volume required to fill the space without gaps or overlaps. They understand that a 1-unit by 1-unit by 1-unit cube is the standard unit for measuring volume. They select appropriate units, strategies, and tools for solving problems that involve estimating and measuring volume. They decompose three-dimensional shapes and find volumes of right rectangular prisms by viewing them as decomposed into layers of arrays of cubes. They measure necessary attributes of shapes in order to determine volumes to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

4. Students learn to interpret the components of a rectangular coordinate system as lines and understand the precision of location that these lines require. Students learn to apply their knowledge of number and length to the order and distance relationships of a coordinate grid and to coordinate this across two dimensions. Students solve mathematical and real world problems using coordinates.

## Contact Us

### Catherine Anusauskas

**Titles:**Math Interventionist Teacher, MS Math CTL

**Locations:**Hopkinton Middle School

**Email:**